Por que as mulheres continuam ganhando menos em qualquer ocupação?

Mirian Romão, Repórter  SP
Não é fácil ser mulher e se destacar no mercado de trabalho, sendo gerentes ou supervisoras, mesmo com avanços e tantas conquistas, a desigualdade entre os gêneros, infelizmente, ainda é notável.
Levando em conta que a qualificação profissional é um dos fatores principais para o crescimento na carreira e promoção de salários, a Catho (Agência de emprego) realizou uma pesquisa em que os homens ganham 52% a mais que as mulheres, mesmo cerca de 30% das mulheres possuem um grau de escolaridade no nível superior e pós-graduação em relação aos homens (24%).
As barreiras estão sendo quebradas aos poucos, por mais que culturalmente foram distribuídas as atividades domésticas às mulheres, quando ocupamos cargos de assistentes a diferença chega a ser de 8% a menos que os homens, já com cargos de analistas recebemos cerca de 14% a menos.
De acordo com Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), os fatores que explicam essa diferença, está relacionada a carga horária, os homens trabalham cerca de 42h mensais, já as mulheres trabalham 37h.
“Esse estudo mostra que a jornada média dos homens é cerca de 4h48min mais longa que a exercida pelas mulheres. Verificamos isso todos os anos, essa diferença já foi de seis horas. É uma característica do mercado de trabalho, uma vez que isso indica apenas as horas nesse setor”, declara Adriana Beringuy, analista da Coordenação de Trabalho e Rendimento do IBGE, em uma reportagem disponível no site do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística.
Contudo, a pesquisa não leva em conta o quanto as mulheres dedicam seu tempo aos afazeres domésticos e cuidados de pessoas, ou seja, dedicamos em média 18 horas semanais realizando essas atividades, sem contar a quantidade de horas da jornada de trabalho das mulheres.
A diferença entre cargos está relacionado até mesmo na política, estudos feitos pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) mostram que as mulheres representam metade da população, porém não ocupamos tantos cargos na política assim.
No Brasil, temos uma cota mínima de 30% das candidaturas separada para as mulheres, entretanto, os partidos preenchem essa conta com candidatas fantasmas. Os economistas David Dollar, Raymond Fisman e Roberta Gatti, usaram o índice de corrupção do Banco Mundial para analisar a representatividade das mulheres na política.
A pesquisa aponta que quanto maior a proporção de mulheres no parlamento, menor é o índice de corrupção de um país, conforme relatou o Jornal Nexo.
De acordo com uma pesquisa feito pelo Senado, as mulheres têm pouco apoio dos partidos e consequentemente não vemos tantas mulheres no parlamento, para cada sete vereadores homens, vemos somente uma mulher.
Não restam dúvidas que as mulheres ainda têm um longo caminho a percorrer, os homens precisam compartilhar a responsabilidade dos afazeres domésticos e cuidados com a família, já que a mulher não é obrigada a isto.
É fundamental entender a igualdade de gêneros no país, para que mais cargos sejam ocupados por mulheres e possamos passar a ser representadas em cargos superiores com a igualdade salarial.

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