O retorno da revolta da vacina

Luiza Esteves, Repórter Rio de Janeiro
 
O movimento antivacina vem crescendo cada vez mais e preocupa especialistas da área da saúde no mundo inteiro. Essa atitude gerou o retorno de doenças que já haviam sido erradicadas no Brasil, como o Sarampo, Poliomielite, Difteria e Rubéola.
 
Durante o governo Rodrigues Alves, passamos por uma situação semelhante a esse movimento. O acúmulo de toneladas de lixo nas ruas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro gerou a proliferação de ratos e mosquitos transmissores de doenças, como a Peste Bubônica e a Febre Amarela. Assim, o vírus da Varíola se alastrou e o médico Oswaldo Cruz foi contratado para combater a epidemia.
 
Em 1904, Oswaldo Cruz impôs vacinação obrigatória contra a Varíola e a partir daí surgiu a rebelião popular chamada de Revolta da Vacina, em que políticos militares de oposição e parte da população da cidade se opuseram à medida. Dias depois, a campanha de vacinação foi reiniciada sem ser obrigatória e em 1980 a Varíola foi totalmente erradicada.
 
O movimento antivacina defende a ideia de que os agentes imunizantes da vacina não produziriam o efeito pretendido e seriam mais prejudiciais do que benéficos a saúde. Entre os argumentos usados também temos o de que remédios contém substâncias danosas, como o mercúrio. Há também a questão religiosa e o medo de causar o autismo. Contudo, já está comprovado que a concentração do mercúrio não causa nenhum prejuízo no desenvolvimento das crianças e que a vacina contra o sarampo, caxumba e rubéola não provocam o autismo.
 
Em entrevista para a revista Isto É, o casal Priscila e Alexandre dos Santos, de São Paulo, aderiram ao movimento antivacina. Eles procuram usar a menor quantidade de remédio, adotam uma dieta que consideram saudável e deram aos seus filhos apenas as vacinas consideradas obrigatórias. “Nosso corpo é uma máquina perfeita e capaz de se tornar forte e imune se for cuidado corretamente”, diz Priscila.
 
De acordo com o infectologista Guido Levi, da Sociedade Brasileira de Imunizações, a nova Revolta da Vacina dá-se ao contrário do cenário de 1904. “Ela é maior entre pessoas das classes mais favorecidas”, afirma Levi. Dessa forma, o movimento não surge a partir da desinformação.
 
Esse ano a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) divulgou um novo plano estratégico para ampliar o acesso a saúde e qualidade no mundo. Dentre as 10 ameaças à saúde detectadas pela instituição está o movimento antivacina. A OMS afirma que devemos evitar mortes desnecessárias e quedas drásticas no bem estar na população.
 
O Sarampo, por exemplo, já não registrava casos há mais de um ano e, em 2016, a doença havia sido considerada erradicada pela OMS. Contudo, desde 2018 índices da organização apontam para o surto do Sarampo no país. Em relação à Poliomielite, o Ministério da Saúde emitiu um alerta de que 312 cidades brasileiras já correm risco de reintrodução da doença.
 
A vacina é uma das grandes conquistas da medicina que permitiu obter uma forma de controle em relação a doenças infecciosas. Pertencemos a uma sociedade e, portanto, algumas de nossas escolhas podem afetar toda uma população. Esse é o caso do movimento antivacina.

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