O que o Brasil pode fazer pelos refugiados

Mirian Romão- São Paulo

O número de refugiados tem aumentado ao logo dos anos, segundo o Observatório de Migrações Internacionais (Obmigra) entre 2010 e 2018 recebemos cerca de 106 mil haitianos no Brasil.

 
De acordo com a Agência da ONU para Refugiados (ACNUR), 57% de todos os refugiados vêm da Síria, Afeganistão e Sudão do Sul. O ACNUR divulgou, no final de 2018, cerca de 70,8 milhões de pessoas que foram forçadas a deixar seus locais de origem por diferentes conflitos. Cerca de 25,9 milhões são refugiados e 3,5 milhões são pessoas solicitando reconhecimento da condição de refúgio. Os países que mais possuíram refugiados em 2018 são: a Turquia com 3,7 milhões, o Paquistão com 1,4 milhão e Uganda com 1,2 milhão. De acordo com o coordenador-geral do Conere, Bernado Laferté, em 2018 dos 80 mil pedidos de entrada no país, 61 mil foram feitos por venezuelano, conforme divulgado pela EBC. 
 
O Brasil criou a Lei de Refúgio (Nº9.474/97) em 1997, que garante direitos civis, como cédula de identidade, carteira de trabalho e documento de viagem.  A Lei foi atualizada dando direitos aos imigrantes se manifestarem politicamente, condenar qualquer pessoa por xenofobia e discriminação e possibilita que o imigrante não seja preso por estar de modo irregular no país. Em 2017, foi constituído a Lei da Migração Nº13.445 e em 2018 a Lei Nº13.684 que dispõe de medidas de assistência emergencial para acolhimento às pessoas em situação de vulnerabilidade, decorrente de fluxo migratório provocado por crise humanitária.
 
Alguns lugares oferecem atividades para integrar os refugiados na sociedade brasileira, como os estudantes da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, que criaram o Memorial Digital do Refugiado (MemoRef), com o intuito de promover encontros, debates, aulas gratuitas de língua portuguesa e da cultura brasileira. O Instituto de Reintegração do Refugiado (ADUS) oferece aos refugiados aulas de português, inserção no mercado de trabalho e orientação jurídica. Existem outros trabalhos voluntários para integrar os refugiados, por exemplo, a Missão da Paz, Cáritas Brasileiras, Acnur e outros.
Desta forma, também há ações governamentais para os refugiados, o órgão responsável pelos refugiados é o Comitê Nacional para Refugiados (CONARE), onde processa os pedidos de refúgio no país, realizam entrevistas e concede status de refugiados a esses estrangeiros. É possível ajudar os refugiados mostrando a quantidade de ONGs e ações do governo que existem. 
 
Jean Junior chegou ao Brasil há 2 anos e 5 meses foi acolhida pelo casal Rolsema e Milton Romão, que recebeu ajuda de amigos desde o momento de sua chegada.
Desde que chegou ao Brasil, Jean contou que foi difícil arrumar trabalho, mas depois que conseguiu, as oportunidades no Brasil passaram a melhorar.
 
“Para arrumar um serviço no começo era muito difícil porque eu não falava a língua portuguesa, mas depois de 5 meses no Brasil um amigo brasileiro me ajudou a arrumar um serviço”. 
 
De acordo com Jean, o Brasil precisa melhorar com relação à xenofobia e preconceito, pois vivenciou casos assim no País. No Brasil, existe a Lei Nº 7.716 que determina que “serão punidos, os crimes resultantes de discriminação ou preconceito de raça, cor, etnia, religião ou procedência nacional”. Entretanto, apesar das dificuldades nos primeiros meses, Jean foi acolhido por amigos, conseguiu um trabalho e conheceu uma família no Brasil que o “adotou”.
 
Roselma relata que conheceu Jean no trabalho e a partir das dificuldades de adaptação no país, começou a se aproximar de Jean para tentar ajudar ele de alguma forma.
Jean considera Roselma e Milton como pais e ambos possuem um sentimento de muito carinho e admiração. Com a ajuda dos seus “pais brasileiros” e o trabalho no Brasil, em 2019, Jean finalmente conseguiu trazer sua esposa para o país. Em 2018, o Governo Federal apoiou a recepção de refugiados e imigrantes da Venezuela, tendo equipes e algumas ONGs abrigando, atendendo e regularizando status migratório das pessoas.

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