A cultura e os costumes indianos

Por Luiza Pinheiro- Repórter Rio de Janeiro

 

A Índia é um país com muitas belezas naturais e uma espiritualidade muito grande, o que atrai diversos turistas durante o ano. O hinduísmo é a religião com o maior número de devotos e a crença é que não há apenas um Deus, mas sim vários, sendo considerada uma prática politeísta. Divindades como Brahma, Ganesha e Shiva são algumas das mais importantes para essas pessoas. Com uma população de 1,3 bilhão de cidadãos e uma República Parlamentarista, o país possui um chefe de Estado, Ram Nath Kovind, que está no cargo desde meados de 2017, e um primeiro-ministro, Narendra Modi. Os idiomas mais falados são o hindi e o inglês, mas existem ainda 21 línguas reconhecidas pela administração federal.
 
Apesar de sua imensurável espiritualidade e cultura, a Índia possui diversos problemas sociais e econômicos. Não é segredo que em questão de direitos humanos o país fica bem atrás de outras regiões e tem muito o que melhorar. O Estado sofre com uma baixa mobilidade social causada, principalmente, pelo sistema de castas, que existe há muitos anos e é parte da história do país. Ele consiste em segregar os cidadãos devido a uma ordem social já estabelecida no nascimento, ou seja, sem possibilidade de mudança. O “intocável”, ou dalit, é a casta mais baixa e são pessoas rejeitadas pela sociedade.
 
A discrepância econômica na Índia também é algo bastante recorrente. Apesar de, desde os anos 1990, o país ter tirado milhões de cidadãos da miséria, ele ainda possui um grande índice de desigualdade, onde muitas pessoas têm pouco e poucas possuem muitas riquezas. Intensificando mais essa disparidade social, o Relatório da Desigualdade Global mostra que, entre 1980 e 2014, a renda dos 10% mais ricos no país aumentou 390% enquanto a dos 50% mais pobres cresceu apenas 90%. Outro ponto problemático em questão de direitos humanos e que é importante de ser tratado é a situação das mulheres indianas. Mesmo com medidas tomadas durante os últimos anos para gerar autonomia a elas nos âmbitos da educação, economia e mercado de trabalho, a visão da mulher submissa ao homem não foi completamente revertida.
Uma pesquisa com especialistas dessa área feita pela Fundação Thomson Reuters em 2018 mostrou que a Índia é o país mais perigoso do mundo para a população feminina por causa do alto risco de violência sexual e de trabalho escravo. Além disso, nessa região é bastante comum haver abortos quando o bebê é uma menina. Isto porque a tradição indiana diz que é o filho homem que perpetua a linhagem da família e cuida dos pais quando ficam mais velhos. Como o casamento indiano é algo arranjado ainda, a família da noiva também deve pagar um dote à do noivo, o que faz com que tenha despesas maiores.
 
Por isso, o governo implantou uma lei que proíbe a realização do teste para saber o sexo do bebê antes de seu nascimento. No entanto, muitos conseguem burlar esse decreto e o aborto seletivo acaba sendo feito. Segundo a ONG americana Invisible Girl, de cinco a sete milhões de fetos de meninas são abortados todos os anos na Índia. Já uma pesquisa feita pelo governo do país em 2017 prevê que, em 2031, haverá apenas 898 mulheres de 15 a 34 anos para mil homens da mesma faixa etária.

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