Os dois lados do impeachment

Pedidos de impeachment do presidente ganham fôlego no debate público. Mas falta discutir que impactos positivos e negativos a medida traria para o país 

Melissa Rocha                                                  melissa.rocha@mulheresjornalistas.com

Adormecido desde 2016, o termo “impeachment” tornou a dominar os debates públicos sobre política. O motivo são os sucessivos desmandos do presidente da República, Jair Bolsonaro, especialmente na forma como conduz a pandemia, dando todos os sinais de estar do lado do vírus. Para uma grande parcela da população, a situação chegou ao limite e o afastamento do mandatário se tornou impreterível. 

Porém, embora a indignação seja justificável, o cerne do debate ofusca outras questões que devem ser analisadas sem a interferência de emoções. O que deveria estar sendo discutido neste momento não é se Bolsonaro deveria ou não ser afastado, mas sim que impactos positivos e negativos os pedidos de impeachment contra ele trazem para o país. 

Primeiramente, vamos analisar os impactos negativos que o afastamento do presidente traria. O primeiro seria o fim da ilusão de que sua saída resolveria a situação atual do país. Bolsonaro é apenas o rosto de todo um governo que está intrinsecamente alinhado às suas posições. Ou seja, mesmo que ele saia, permanecem os militares encrustados em órgãos-chave, que partilham de sua ideologia. Permanece o ministro da Saúde defensor do tratamento precoce contra a covid-19 – mesmo sendo a prática refutada por infectologistas. Permanece, também, a ministra cujos assessores tentaram coagir uma menina de dez anos, vítima de estupro, a manter a gestação, por considerarem o aborto um pecado. Permanece ainda o ministro das Relações Exteriores que, pautado por ideais tradicionalistas, jogou por terra a posição do Brasil como líder emergente e fez da política externa brasileira algo similar a rixas de turmas, se pautando por ideologia em vez da defesa dos interesses nacionais. 

Não só isso: saindo Bolsonaro, assume o também militar Hamilton Mourão. Apesar da imagem moderada, alcançada por meio de um intensivo de media training, Mourão já deu provas de que é tão perigoso quanto Bolsonaro, ou talvez mais. Basta lembrar que, em janeiro de 2019, quando assumiu pela primeira vez o governo de forma interina, uma das primeiras ações de Mourão foi tentar alterar, via decreto, a Lei de Acesso à Informação – uma das principais ferramentas para apurar esquemas de corrupção. Ele também defendeu a curiosa ascensão na carreira de seu filho, Antonio Mourão, no Banco do Brasil. Nos primeiros seis meses do governo Bolsonaro, Antonio foi promovido duas vezes, triplicando seu salário para R$ 36 mil. Em entrevistas, Mourão afirmou que as promoções se deram por “mérito” e que governos anteriores “não reconheciam a competência do filho”. 

Mas a cereja do bolo, por assim dizer, foi colocada em 31 de março do ano passado, quando Mourão foi às redes sociais defender o golpe militar de 1964 e a posterior imposição da ditadura. Ou seja, Mourão não apenas é contra a transparência no governo e a favor de privilégios para os seus: ele é contra a democracia. Tudo isso leva a desconfiar se a saída de Bolsonaro de fato colocaria o país nos eixos, ou se pavimentaria o caminho para algo ainda pior. 

Outro aspecto negativo que o impeachment traria é o dano que ele causaria na imagem do Brasil no exterior, que já anda desgastada. Aqueles que costumam afirmar “tiramos esse, se não gostarmos do outro, tiramos também” ignoram que trocar de presidente como quem troca de blusa rende ao país a imagem de um lugar turbulento, espantando acordos e investimentos. Afinal, quem colocaria seu dinheiro em um país onde a instabilidade política é regra? Passamos por um impeachment há menos de cinco anos. Um segundo, agora, em pleno ano de crise econômica global, não seria conveniente. 

Mas, apesar dos pontos expostos, há também pontos positivos nos apelos pela saída do presidente. Isso porque os pedidos de impeachment não servem só para afastar um mandatário: eles também servem como uma ferramenta de pressão, algo que grita o descontentamento com a sua gestão. E isso não apenas ajuda a constranger suas ações, como também estimula outros poderes a atuar com mais rigor contra seus desmandos. E mais: a demonstração de impopularidade ajuda a minar as bases políticas do presidente e erode suas chances de reeleição – algo muito importante, pois um autocrata em segundo mandato, ciente de que serão seus últimos anos no cargo, costuma intensificar suas ações impopulares. Nesse contexto, os pedidos de impeachment contra Bolsonaro o colocam na mesma posição que Michel Temer esteve alguns anos atrás, quando constantes pedidos de afastamento anularam qualquer chance de concorrer na eleição de 2018, embora ele alegue que não o fez por decisão própria. 

Por fim, para que o Brasil retorne aos eixos, paralelamente aos pedidos de impeachment, é preciso que a oposição se una em torno de um nome para enfrentá-lo em 2022. Faltando pouco menos de um ano para as eleições presidenciais, ainda não há um consenso sobre isso. A oposição se encontra rachada, enquanto o núcleo duro dos apoiadores do presidente segue unido. Portanto, em vez de discutir apenas o impeachment, o cerne do debate atual deveria ser: sai Bolsonaro, entra quem? 

 

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