A experiência com a pílula anticoncepcional

Por Mirian Romão, Repórter São Paulo


A primeira pílula anticoncepcional chegou ao mercado em 1960, nos EUA, criada pelo cientista americano Gregory Pincus. O medicamento contraceptivo impactou a autonomia das mulheres e as decisões do próprio corpo. Desencadeado uma mudança sobre o sexo fora do casamento. A enfermeira Margaret Sanger ativista pelos direitos das mulheres, o ginecologista John Rock, a financiadora Katharine com a fortuna herdada da família e o cientista Gregory, juntos colaboraram para a criação da primeira pílula anticoncepcional, com base na pesquisa do cientista Gregory.

Margaret lutou pelo movimento dos direitos contraceptivos das mulheres nos EUA, quando ainda era proibido a distribuição de contraceptivos. Para ela as mulheres não teriam direitos iguais enquanto não se libertassem sexualmente. Em 1916 abriu a primeira clínica de controle de natalidade do país com sua irmã Olive Byrne. Inclusive, a famosa personagem Mulher Maravilha foi inspirada em Margaret Sanger e em sua irmã Mary Olive Byrne.

A personagem teve influência também da Elizabeth Holloway Marston advogada e psicóloga americana. De acordo com dados divulgados pelo jornal Nexo, em 1965, foram registrados 6,5 milhões de mulheres americanas que já tomavam a pílula anticoncepcional. No Brasil, as pílulas começaram a ser comercializada em 1962, dois anos depois após ter sido aprovada nos EUA. O medicamento foi se tornando popular e em 1970 em média 6,8 milhões de cartelas de pílulas foram vendidas, este número subiu em 1980 para 40,9 milhões.

O medicamente se tornou o método contraceptivo mais utilizado por mulheres, segundo a Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU), em 2015 cerca de 79% das brasileiras usaram métodos contraceptivos. A maioria das pessoas utiliza a pílula anticoncepcional para controle de natalidade, entretanto, de acordo com o portal Boa Saúde, o efeito antiandrogênico pode ajudar a combater a oleosidade do cabelo, da pele e a acne. Além de diminuir o fluxo menstrual das mulheres, regularizando o ciclo. Entretanto, a pílula anticoncepcional possui risco e precisa de acompanhamento ginecológico.

Conforme relatado pelo G1, uma pesquisa feita na Europa, acompanhou 50.203 mulheres americanas e de países europeus para identificar casos de trombose relatados pelo uso do contraceptivo. Entre as 50 mil mulheres, foram relatados 118 casos de trombose. O medicamento não protege contra doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Com os riscos que o anticoncepcional oferece, as mulheres buscam alternativas mais naturais. Contudo, os especialistas estão buscando desenvolver uma pílula com menos efeitos colaterais.

Em 2013, o casal Elina Berglund e Raoul Scherwitzl, em busca de um método mais natural, desenvolveram o primeiro aplicativo contraceptivo. O aplicativo, Natural Cycles, tem um algoritmo altamente complexo que monitora a fertilidade de qualquer mulher para dizer quando tem menos ou mais probabilidade de engravidar. O aplicativo contraceptivo possui uma efetividade de 93% com uso típico e de 98% com uso perfeito, se você não fez sexo sem proteção. É necessário que cada mulher tenha acompanhamento ginecológico para escolher qual melhor método para ela, de acordo com a fase de sua vida.

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